Respond to Emergencies


Safety of Passengers

Muster List and Emergency Procedure

Special duties to be undertaken in the event of an emergency shall be allotted to each member of the crew. The muster list should specify details of the general emergency alarm and public address system and also action to be taken by crew and passengers when this alarm is sounded. The muster list shall also specify how the order to abandon ship will be given.

Each passenger ship shall have procedures in place for locating and rescuing passengers trapped in their staterooms.

The muster list shall show all the special duties and shall indicate, in particular, the station to which each member must go, and the duties that he has to perform.

The muster list for each passenger ship shall be in a form approved by the Administration.

Before the vessel sails, the muster list shall be completed. Copies shall be posted in several parts of the ship, and in particular in the crew’s quarters.

The muster list shall show the duties assigned to the different members of the crew in connection with:

a.        closing of the watertight doors, fire doors, valves, scuppers, sidescuttles, skylights, portholes and other similar openings in the ship;

b.       equipping of the survival craft and other life-saving appliances;

c.        preparation and launching of survival craft;

d.       the general preparation of the other life-saving appliances;

e.        the muster of the passengers;

f.         use of communication equipment;

g.        manning of fire parties assigned to deal with fires;

h.        special duties assigned in respect to the use of fire-fighting equipment and installations and

i.          the extinction of fire, having regard to the ship’s fire control plans.

The muster list shall show the duties assigned to members of the crew in relation to passengers in case of emergency. These duties shall include:

a.        warning the passengers;

b.       seeing that they are suitably clad and have donned their lifejackets correctly;

c.        assembling passengers at muster stations;

d.       keeping order in the passageways and on the stairways and generally controlling the movements of the passengers; and

e.        ensuring that a supply of blankets is taken to the survival craft.

The duties shown by the muster list in relation to the extinction of fire shall include particulars of:

a.        the manning of the fire parties assigned to deal with fires;

b.       the special duties assigned in respect of the operation of fire-fighting equipment and installations.

The muster list shall specify definite signals for calling all the crew to their boat, liferaft and fire stations, and shall give full particulars of these signals.

These signals shall be made on the whistle or siren and, they shall be supplemented by other signals, which shall be electrically operated. All these signals shall be operable from the bridge.

The muster list shall specify which officers are assigned to ensure that life- saving and fire appliances are maintained in good condition and are ready for immediate use.

The muster list shall specify substitutes for key persons who may become disabled, taking into account that different emergencies may call for different actions.

The muster list shall be prepared before the ship proceeds to sea. After the muster list has been prepared, if any change takes place in the crew which necessitates an alteration in the muster list, the master shall either revise the list or prepare a new list.

The format of the muster list used on passenger ships shall be approved.

Practice Musters and Drills

At the emergency drills each member of the crew shall be required to demonstrate his familiarity with the arrangements and facilities of the ship, his duties, and any equipment he may be called upon to use. Masters shall be required to familiarize and instruct the crews in this regard.

Frequency of drills

In passenger ships, musters of the crew for emergency drill shall take place weekly when practicable and there shall be such a muster when a passenger ship leaves the final port of departure.

In cargo ships, a muster of the crew emergency drill shall take place at intervals of not more than one month, provided that a muster of the crew for emergency drill shall take place within 24 hours of leaving a port if more than 25 per cent of the crew have been replaced at that port.

On the occasion of the monthly muster in cargo ships the boat’s equipment shall be examined to ensure that it is complete.

The date upon which musters are held, and details of any training and drills in fire fighting which are carried out on board shall be recorded in such log book. If in any week (for passenger ships) or month (for cargo ships) no muster or a part muster only is held, an entry shall be made stating the circumstances and extent of the muster held. A report of the examination of the boat’s equipment on cargo ships shall be entered in the log book, which shall also record the occasions on which the lifeboats are swung out and lowered.

In passenger ships, a muster of the passengers shall be held within 24 hours after leaving port.

Different groups of lifeboats shall be used in turn at successive emergency drill and every lifeboat shall be swung out and, if practicable and reasonable, lowered at least once every four months. The musters and inspections shall be so arranged that the crew thoroughly understand and are practiced in the duties they have to perform, including instructions in the handling and operation of liferafts where these are carried.

The emergency signal for summoning passengers to muster stations shall be a succession of seven or more short blasts followed by one long blast on the whistle or siren.

This shall be supplemented in passenger ships, by other signals, which shall be electrically operated, throughout the ship operable from the bridge. The meaning of all signals affecting passengers, with precise instructions on what they are to do in an emergency, shall be clearly stated in appropriate languages on cards posted in their cabins and in conspicuous places in other passenger quarters.

In port Emergency Planning

All ships should have procedures ready for immediate implementation in the event of an emergency when in port. The procedures must anticipate and cover all types of emergency, which might be encountered in the particular activities of the ship. Although the main aim of the procedures will be to respond to a fire, all other possible emergencies such as water seepage into the holds, oil cargo overflow, pumproom flooding, men overcome by gas within tanks, breakouts of vessels, weather or blackouts, must be covered. Similarly, while the deployment of fire-fighting equipment will be prominent in any emergency procedures, equipment such as breathing apparatus, resuscitation apparatus and stretchers must also be covered, together with details of means of escape or exit.

The procedures should be familiar to the personnel involved, who should be adequately trained and clearly understand the action they would be required to take when responding to the emergency. This can best be achieved by regularly exercising the plan. Exercises will also serve to highlight the need for any revisions to be made to the plan, associated emergency procedures and further training requirements.

Care should be taken when formulating an emergency plan to ensure that procedures to alert people or to arrange equipment do not depend too heavily on one man doing a number of tasks simultaneously.


Planning and preparation are essential if personnel are to deal successfully with emergencies on board ships. The master and other officers should consider what they would do in the event of various types of emergency, such as fire in cargo holds, fire in the engine room, fire in the accommodation, the collapse of a person in a tank, the ship breaking adrift from her berth, the emergency release of a tanker from her berth etc.

They will not be able to foresee in detail what might occur in all such emergencies but good advance planning will result in quicker and better decisions and a well-organized reaction to the situation.

The following information should be readily available:

a.        Type of cargo, amount and disposition.

b.       Whereabouts of other hazardous substances.

c.        General arrangement plan.

d.       Stability information.

e.        Fire-fighting equipment plans.

Emergency Organisation

An emergency organization should be set up which will come into operation in the event of an emergency. The purpose of this organization will be in each situation to:

a.        Raise the alarm.

b.       Locate and assess the incident and possible dangers.

c.        Organize manpower and equipment.

The following suggestions are for guidance in planning an emergency organisation, which should cover the following four elements:

Command Centre

There should be one group in control of the response to the emergency with the master or the senior officer on board in charge. The command centre should have means of internal and external communication.

Communication is of the utmost importance and the possibility of communication failing should always be taken into account as such back up for communication means should always be provisioned for – such as spare batteries for W/T sets, spare W/T sets, loudhailers, PA system and messengers.

Emergency Party

This group should be under the command of a senior officer and should assess the emergency and report to the command centre on the situation, advising what action should be taken and what assistance should be provided, either from on board or, if the ship is in port, from ashore.

Back up Emergency Party

The back up emergency party under the command of an officer should stand by to assist the emergency party as instructed by the command centre and to provide back up services, e.g. equipment, stores, medical services including cardio-pulmonary resuscitation etc.

Engineering Group

This group should be under the command of the chief engineer or the senior engineering officer on board and should provide emergency assistance as instructed by the command centre. The prime responsibility for dealing with any emergency in the main machinery spaces will probably rest with this group. It may be called on to provide additional manpower elsewhere.

The plan should ensure that all arrangements apply equally well in port and at sea.

Duties assigned for the operation of remote controls such as:

a.        main engine stop

b.       ventilation stops

c.        lubricating and fuel oil transfer pump stops

d.       dump valves

e.        CO2 discharge

f.         watertight doors

Operation of essential services such as:

a.        emergency generator and switchboard

b.       emergency fire and bilge pumps

Balance crew

The rest of the crew if not allotted any of the duties under the different groups as mentioned above would act as back up for the emergency parties.

As back up they may be utilized in various other duties such as accumulating passengers and herding them away from danger to the evacuation decks. Escorting feeble passengers or crew including any injured crew to the safe places as designated. Rendering first aid and trauma counseling. Filling extinguishers as required, mustering fire hoses from elsewhere, recharging and supplying W/T batteries. In case of abandoning ship possibility then taking in additional provisions and clothing/ water. Preparation of the survival crafts such that it does not lead to any panic. Making rounds of areas adjacent of the fire area.

Preliminary Action

The person who discovers the emergency must raise the alarm and pass on information about the situation to the officer on duty who, in turn, must alert the emergency organization. While this is being done, those on the scene should attempt immediate measures to control the emergency until the emergency organization takes effect.

A fire in the galley is dangerous since it can spread very easily into the rest of the accommodation. The fire is dangerous as well as the fumes from burning plastics and any cooking oil.

The person in charge of the galley or the person first locating the fire should try and extinguish the fire himself after alerting the officer of the watch. Generally the fire as it is detected and begins is a small fire and later develops into a major one. Thus the fire may be put off by a single person with the equipment available in the galley and nearby areas.

Fire dampers should be engaged and DCP extinguishers used to put out he galley fire if anywhere on the stove area since these are electric circuits.

In case of cooking oil fire in the provision locker (rare) this may be put out using foam extinguishers and also with DCP extinguishers.

An accommodation fire may be caused by a short circuit or due to smoking or flammable material catching fire inadvertently.

The items to be available would be:

a.        DCP extinguishers

b.       Fire hoses – low to moderate pressure on the fire mains

c.        Insulated fire axe

d.       Fire mans out fit

e.        Safety lamps – many

f.         Fire blanket


The blowers must be stopped instantly and the ventilation should be stopped for all decks as soon as the fire is detected.

All accommodation doors to all decks should be similarly closed to prevent any draught of air reaching the compartment. This should be done before the compartment door is opened to fight the fire.

If the possibility of any portholes being open are there then these should be shut prior any serious fire fighting effort takes place. In stopping the ventilation to the compartment the fire triangle one arm is restricted that of the oxygen supply. It then becomes easier for a man in a fire mans outfit to enter and extinguish the fire.

In case of electrical fire the electrical circuit breakers should be tripped to prevent the fire from migrating and producing sparks elsewhere. The safety lamps should be placed at convenient locations especially around corners for ease of movement of the emergency party, these lights would be in addition to the emergency lighting which should have been switched on. Additionally fire hoses should be brought and kept ready for use. The pressure in the fire hose should be reduced in such close confined space or else the hose would be difficult to handle.

The compartments surrounding the compartment on fire should be inspected.

An engine room fire is potentially very grave. The fire is detected by the automatic heat or vapour sensors or by alert staff.

The alarm is raised and the engine room fire party gets going to tackle the fire.

The fire may be a generator fire – hot oil from the fuel line catching fire, the generator trips and the other generator is put into use. This being a oil fire the prime extinguisher would be the foam fire extinguisher – but for a generator fire the best option is a DCP extinguisher since the foam requires a build up to cut off the oxygen to the oil on fire, this is not possible on vertical metal covers and such.

The large extinguisher should be rolled in to fight the fire, as well as small portable ones put to use. The deck emergency party should be assisting in fighting the fire under direction of the ER personnel. The back ups being used to refill the extinguishers.

In case the fire is uncontrollable then it may be necessary to evacuate the ER and to release CO2. For this the crew muster has to be taken after every one has been evacuated and once the head count is over and the compartment sealed then only should the CO2 released.

If required Urgency messages should be transmitted, if the vessel is at sea.

Essentially for any type of ER fire the most important is the aspect of knowing what is to be done to control and finally to extinguish the fire. For this the knowledge of the ER as well as the equipment together with the location and the type of detectors and extinguishing medium available is very important.

Fire drills should not be taken lightly and it falls on the senior management level officers to devise real life scenarios for the drills.

For any compartment on fire if the ship is in port then the port has to be informed and any assistance offered should be taken since the experience of the shore personnel is more – however their idea of the ships compartments may be scanty, the fire control plan should be gone over with the fire chief and then the fighting can be done with both the forces in tandem.

The fire potential in the ER becoming grave is highlighted by the following:

“YELLOW FIN” (1992): this VLCC 254,000 dwt was fully laden with Arabian crude when she became completely immobilised due to fire in the engine room.

Entry into Enclosed Spaces with Atmospheres Known or Suspected to be Unsafe for Entry

It is stressed that entry into any space that has not been proved to be safe for entry should only be considered in an emergency situation when no practical alternative exists. In this highly hazardous situation, the personnel involved must be well trained in the use of breathing apparatus and be aware of the dangers of removing their face masks while in the hostile atmosphere.

When it is absolutely necessary to enter a compartment where it is suspected that the atmosphere is, or might become unsafe, a responsible officer must continuously supervise the operation and should ensure that:

a.        A permit has been issued by the master stating that there is no practicable alternative to the proposed method of entry and that such entry is essential for the safe operation of the ship.

b.       Ventilation is provided where possible.

c.        Personnel use positive pressure breathing apparatus and are connected to a lifeline.

d.       The number of persons entering the tank is kept to a minimum consistent with the work to be performed.

e.        Means of communication are provided and a system of signals is agreed and understood by the personnel involved.

f.         Spare sets of breathing apparatus, a resuscitator and rescue equipment are available outside the space and a standby party, with breathing apparatus donned, is in  attendance in case of an emergency.

All essential work that is to be undertaken is carried out in a manner that will avoid creating an ignition hazard.


Breathing apparatus, of the positive pressure type, should always be used whenever it is necessary to make an emergency entry into a space which is known to contain toxic  vapours or gas or to be deficient in oxygen, and/or is known to contain contaminants which cannot be effectively dealt with by air purifying equipment. Entry should only be permitted in exceptional circumstances when no other practicable, safe alternative exists.

Self Contained Breathing Apparatus

This consists of a portable supply of compressed air contained in a cylinder or cylinders attached to a carrying frame and harness worn by the user. Air is provided to the user through a face mask which can be adjusted to give an airtight fit. A pressure gauge indicates the pressure in the cylinder and an audible alarm sounds when the supply is running low. Only positive pressure type sets are recommended for use in enclosed spaces as these, as their name implies, maintain a positive pressure within the face mask at all times.

When using the equipment, the following should be noted:

a.        The pressure gauge must be checked before use.

b.       The operation of the audible low pressure alarm should be tested before use.

c.        The face mask must be checked and adjusted to ensure that it is airtight. In this regard, the presence of any facial hair may adversely effect the mask’s seal and, should this be the case, another person should be selected to wear the apparatus.

d.       The pressure gauge should be monitored frequently during use to check on remaining air supply.

e.        Ample time should be allowed for getting out of the hazardous atmosphere. In any event, the user must leave immediately if the low pressure alarm sounds. It should be remembered that the duration of the air supply depends on the weight and fitness of the user and the extent of his exertion.

If the user suspects at any time that the equipment may not be operating satisfactorily or be concerned that the integrity of the face mask seal may be damaged, he should vacate the space immediately.


When an accident involving injury to personnel occurs in an enclosed space, the first action must be to raise the alarm. Although speed is often vital in the interests of saving life, rescue operations should not be attempted until the necessary assistance and equipment has been mustered. There are many examples of lives being lost through hasty, ill-prepared rescue attempts.

Prior organization is of great value in arranging quick and effective response. Lifelines, breathing apparatus, resuscitation equipment and other items of rescue equipment should always be kept ready for use and a trained emergency team should be available. A code of signals should be agreed in advance.

Whenever it is suspected that an unsafe atmosphere has been a contributory factor to the accident, breathing apparatus and, where practicable, lifelines must be used by persons entering the space.

The officer in charge of a rescue should remain outside the space, from where the most effective control can be exercised.

It is imperative that every member of the rescue team should know what is expected of him.

Regular drills and exercises in rescue from enclosed spaces should be carried out.


All tanker personnel should be instructed in resuscitation techniques for the treatment of persons who have been overcome by toxic gases or fumes, or whose breathing has stopped from other causes such as electric shock or drowning.

Most tankers are provided with special apparatus for use in resuscitation. This apparatus can be of a number of different types. It is important that personnel are aware of its presence and are trained in its proper use.

The apparatus should be stowed where it is easily accessible and not kept locked up. The instructions provided with it should be clearly displayed on board ship. The apparatus and the contents of cylinders should be checked periodically. Adequate spare bottles should be carried.

Heavy weather damage

Heavy weather damage as the name suggests is damage caused due to the weather being very rough with possibility of seas being shipped on deck.

In the event of any ventilators being sheared off, the same would have to be closed effectively to prevent water from entering the hold.

With the weather bad the conditions would not be suitable for sending un initiated crew on deck, the crew who would be sent should be able bodies and with the knowledge as to what is expected of them. Lifelines should be rigged and each crew should be attached to a lifeline and be wearing life jackets.

The tools required should be made up into a canvas bag and slung over.

The ship should be turned so that the least amount of sea comes on deck and the crew then only sent to do the work.

Minimal number of crew are to be sent unless necessary.

For hatches which are found to be leaking the most effective repair that can be effected would be to spread canvas over the hatches. This may be done by sending men to tie up the ropes to the hatch coamings on one side and then going to the other side to tie up the other end. The canvas being spread between the ropes.

If the deck cargo is found to be adrift then additional lashings should be taken rather than trying to secure/ tighten the existing lashings.

If at night then the advent of daylight should be awaited for unless it is of utmost important to do the repairs during dark hours. For one visibility would be down and the efficiency of crew  when working in dark is less than during daylight.

Rescue of survivors from another ship or the sea

Prior rescuing survivors from another ship the own ship should have been brought as close as possible to the disabled ship. A lee is to be provided for lowering the rescue boat.

The rescue boats are to be prepared and under a suitable command the rescue boat is to be lowered. Communication with both the disabled ship and the own ship is of utmost necessity.

Once the rescue boat is in the water it is to proceed to the disabled ship and if possible may go alongside the disabled ship from where the passengers are to descend. If the alongside is not possible then a line is to be tossed to the rescue boat tied to a lifebuoys at the centre of the line.

The survivors are to attach themselves to this line and should get down with the help of a pilot ladder or other ladder and then haul themselves along the main rope resting if required at the lifebuoy.

If a ladder is not possible them the survivors are to jump into the water keeping the life line attached to the main rescue line and the above procedure then may be effected.

The rescue ship in the meantime should steam to a position to the leeward side of the disabled ship such that on completion of the rescue the lifeboat could sail downwind to the rescue ship. This would also ensure that the survivors are offered a quiet sea. The rescue boat would proceed to the rescue ship and go around the stern to the leeside of the rescue ship and be hoisted up.

In case the lowering of the rescue boat is impractical then a modified breeches buoy may be slung between the two ships with a liferaft instead of a buoy serving as the rescue compartment.

The survivors would get into the liferaft and be pulled onto the side of the rescue ship.

To send the first line a rocket throwing apparatus should be used, the direction of the throw should take into account the wind direction such that the line reaches the disabled ship. Once this is done a 24mm rope is to be passed to the other ship and then a thicker rope or smaller diameter mooring line. In case that is not available then a small diameter wire rope. Adequate precaution regarding the hauling rope should be taken such that the rope hauling the raft should not part.

The rescue ship however should prepare boarding nets – cargo net slings or other net slings, so that any survivor may clamber aboard.

To pick up survivors from the sea, the rescue boat should be launched, the rescue ship offering the lee. Once the boat is launched the ship should steam away so that it becomes easier for the rescue boat to sail downwind after the rescue also any survivor in the water could swim downwind to the rescue ship clambering up with the help of the nets.

Warm blankets and dry clothing should be prepared for the survivors as well as a hot beverage.

The own ship should also cater for any hypothermia affected patients.

Leakages and spills of dangerous cargo

Any dangerous cargo that is spilled or leaks out should be dealt with as stated in the IMDG code. Protection or injury caused by the above should be dealt with as stated in the MFAG.

The cargo as it is loaded would have a material on the actions to be taken in the case of leakages/ spillages. The actions on board should be in conformity to the above.

Some liquids should not be flushed with water, barring these any hazardous materials may be flushed with water.

Any contaminant if hazardous to the environment should be informed to the nearest port control and an entry made in the log book or the cargo record book.


Accidental grounding is unexpected and happens with nobody prepared for the emergency.

The dangers are dependent on the type of shallow patch on which the vessel has grounded.

If it happens in a river or entrance to a channel with soft mud then the chances of any bottom damage is negligible.

However the danger is may fold if the ship runs aground on a rocky surface, the bottom can be ripped apart and the ship would then be taking in water.

The findings of a commission of enquiry after a grounding highlights the above:

“The engines were run astern intermittently between 1736 hours and 1913 hours, without a full assessment of the damage to the vessel being made. This action may have increased the damage to the hull and, in the worst case, if the ship had come off the reef, it may have sunk immediately.”

The above vessel had run aground at 1735 hrs.

Thus it is necessary to sound all compartments of the ship to ensure that the outer structure is intact, not that it does not mean that the outer skin is not breached – it may happen that after breaching the area got firmly stuck overall with the bottom thus the chance of water seepage was negligible in the first hour of sounding.

Thus the emergency measures that may be taken would be to:

a.        Stop the engines

b.       Ring the emergency alarm

c.        Change over sea suction to high intake

d.       Sound all tanks

e.        Sound the water surrounding the ship – this would give an idea of the nature of the bed as well as the overall area of contact.

The sounding should be taken at intervals of 30mins in the contact area region.

After it is established that the tanks/ holds/ER are intact, then only any further action should be taken. Regarding the earlier example of the ship aground it was found that the cofferdam in the ER had been breached. Although the ER was initially flooding the pumps could cope up – this led to complacency, then the cofferdam man hole bolts gave way and again flooding of the ER started.

Thus flooding may start after a period of time from sources earlier disregarded.

Before any action is taken the crew should be ready for abandoning the ship if there is danger that the ship would sink in deep waters.

The ship then could be lightened by either ballasting or deballasting tanks to release the ship.

If the above fails then it is better to wait for salvage tugs. Earlier period ship much smaller could be dragged out using the ships anchors but is not feasible by ships boats or crew.

Abandoning ship

Abandoning ship is a decision which has to be taken by the Master after due consideration weighing all the options.

Since the ship is the best life boat there is, to abandon this and proceed to life boats and rafts is a courageous decision.

However before abandon ship order is received the boats are to be provisioned in excess of the amount already in place. Provisions such as sweets – chocolates – biscuits – and other high calorie foods may be taken in preference to meat and other such provisions.

On receiving the abandon ship signal an orderly embarkation would cause little panic and the resultant injury.

On casting off from the ship the boats should move a distance away from the ship and remain altogether. This would ensure that when rescue ships/ aircraft reach the last position of the abandoned vessel they would be able to sight the survivors easily.

The SART should be placed on a high point maybe at the end of a boat hook and lashed in place. The Radar reflectors should be assembled and erected again on a high point. The EPIRB if having been taken on board should be placed in a safe place.

It would be advantageous to connect all the boats and rafts by a rope so that the drift of the boats and rafts are similar.

If the abandoning is close to shore then an attempt may be made to land ashore provided that the shore is suitable for landing.

The sight of rollers would indicate the slope of the coast and the success of the landing. If the rollers are in multiple lines then the slope would in general be sloping quite a bit. Single lines would indicate a sharp slope.

The LB W/T should be used with care since the battery would be discharged with too many transmissions – in the reception mode the battery would last a considerable time.

Importance of drills and practices

Training and Drills

Ship’s personnel should be familiar with the theory of fire-fighting and should receive instruction in the use of fire-fighting and emergency equipment. Practices and drills should be arranged at intervals to ensure that personnel retain their familiarity with the equipment.

If an opportunity arises for a combined fire practice or conference with shore personnel at a terminal the master should make an officer available to show the shore personnel the location of portable and fixed fire-fighting equipment on board and also to instruct them on any design features of the ship which may require special attention in case of fire.

Protection and Safety of Passengers

Some of the crew on passenger ships would have the duties related to safety of passengers. They would require to instruct and guide the passengers to the embarkation/ muster stations. The crew would have to have a head count and assist feeble passengers to the stations. Realizing that panic among a majority of the passengers would be catastrophic. good crowd control techniques would be required. This and the trust which the passengers would have for the crew should be built up during the drills for the above.

SOLAS specifies that on passenger ships some crew would be entrusted with the following:

Each passenger ship shall have procedures in place for locating and rescuing passengers trapped in their staterooms.

The muster list shall show the duties assigned to members of the crew in relation to passengers in case of emergency. These duties shall include:

a.        warning the passengers;

b.       seeing that they are suitably clad and have donned their lifejackets correctly;

c.        assembling passengers at muster stations;

d.       keeping order in the passageways and on the stairways and generally controlling the movements of the passengers; and

e.        ensuring that a supply of blankets is taken to the survival craft.

Additionally some crew would have to undertake the following:

a.        ensuring that all passengers spaces are evacuated

b.       taking a roll-call of passengers

c.        instructing passengers on the procedure for boarding  survival craft or jumping into the sea

d.       directing them to embarkation stations

e.        instructing passengers during drills