|SOLAS Genl. Prov.||SOLAS Sub. Division||SOLAS Fire Safety||SOLAS LSA||SOLAS GMDSS|
|SOLAS Grain||SOLAS Dangerous Goods||ISM||STCW||Athens Conv.|
International Convention on Load Lines, 1966 (LL 1966), as amended
No ship to which the present Convention applies shall proceed to sea on an international voyage after the date on which the present Convention comes into force unless it has been surveyed, marked and provided with an International Load Line Certificate (1966) or, where appropriate, an International Load Line Exemption Certificate in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention.
Nothing in this Convention shall prevent an Administration from assigning a greater freeboard than the minimum freeboard determined in accordance with Annex I.
The present Convention shall apply to:
(a) ships registered in countries the Governments of which are Contracting Governments;
(b) ships registered in territories to which the present Convention is extended under Article 32; and
(c) unregistered ships flying the flag of a State, the Government of which is a Contracting Government.
The present Convention shall apply to ships engaged on international voyages.
The Regulations contained in Annex I are specifically applicable to the new ships.
Existing ships which do not fully comply with the requirements of the Regulations contained in Annex I or any part thereof shall meet at least such lesser related requirements as the Administration applied to ships on international voyages prior to the coming into force of the present Convention; in no case shall such ships be required to increase their freeboards. In order to take advantage of any reduction in freeboard from that previously assigned, existing ships shall comply with all the requirements of the present Convention.
The Regulations contained in Annex II are applicable to new and existing ships to which the present Convention applies.
Duration of certificates
An International Load Line Certificate (1966) shall be issued for a period specified by the Administration, which shall not exceed five years from the date of issue.
If, after the periodical survey, a new certificate cannot be issued to the ship before the expiry of the certificate originally issued, the person or organization carrying out the survey may extend the validity of the original certificate for a period which shall not exceed five months. This extension shall be endorsed on the certificate, and shall be granted only where there have been no alterations in the structure, equipment, arrangements, material or scantlings which affect the ship’s freeboard.
An International Load Line Certificate (1966) shall be cancelled by the Administration if any of the following circumstances exist:
(a) material alterations have taken place in the hull or superstructures of the ship such as would necessitate the assignment of an increased freeboard;
(b) the fittings and appliances mentioned in sub-paragraph (c) of paragraph (1) of Article 14 are not maintained in an effective condition;
(c) the certificate is not endorsed to show that the ship has been inspected
(d) the structural strength of the ship is lowered to such an extent that the ship is unsafe.
The duration of an International Load Line Exemption Certificate issued by an Administration to a ship shall not exceed five years from the date of issue. Such certificate shall be subject to a renewal, endorsement and cancellation procedure similar to that provided for an International Load Line Certificate (1966) under this Article.
The duration of an International Load Line Exemption Certificate issued to a ship shall be limited to a single voyage for which it is issued.
A certificate issued to a ship by an Administration shall cease to be valid upon the transfer of such a ship to the flag of another State.
Ships holding a certificate are subject, when in the ports of other Contracting Governments, to control by officers duly authorized by such Governments. Contracting Governments shall ensure that such control is exercised as far as is reasonable and practicable with a view to verifying that there is on board a valid certificate under the present Convention. If there is a valid International Load Line Certificate (1966) on board the ship, such control shall be limited to the purpose of determining that:
(a) the ship is not loaded beyond the limits allowed by the certificate;
(b) the position of the load line of the ship corresponds with certificate; and
(c) the ship has not been so materially altered that the ship is manifestly unfit to proceed to sea without danger to human life.
If there is a valid International Load Line Exemption Certificate on board, such control shall be limited to the purpose of determining that any conditions stipulated in that certificate are complied with.
If such control is exercised, it shall only be exercised in so far as may be necessary to ensure that the ship shall not sail until it can proceed to sea without danger to the passengers or the crew.
In the event of the control provided for in this Article giving rise to intervention of any kind, the officer carrying out the control shall immediately inform in writing the Consul or the diplomatic representative of the State whose flag the ship is flying of this decision and of all the circumstances in which intervention was deemed to be necessary.
Freeboard. The freeboard assigned is the distance measured vertically downwards amidships from the upper edge of the deck line to the upper edge of the related load line.
Freeboard deck. The freeboard deck is normally the uppermost complete deck exposed to weather and sea, which has permanent means of closing all openings in the weather part thereof, and below which all the openings in the sides of the ship are fitted with permanent means of watertight closing. In a ship having a discontinuous freeboard deck, the lowest line of the exposed deck and the continuation of that line parallel to the upper part of the deck is taken as the freeboard deck. At the option of the owner and subject to the approval of the Administration, a lower deck may be designated as the freeboard deck, provided it is a complete and permanent deck continuous in a fore and aft direction at least between the machinery space and peak bulkheads and continuous athwartships. When this lower deck is stepped the lowest line of the deck and the continuation of that line parallel to the upper part of the deck is taken as the freeboard deck. When a lower deck is designated as the freeboard deck, that part of the hull which extends above the freeboard deck is treated as a superstructure so far as concerns the application of the conditions of assignment and the calculation of freeboard. It is from this deck that the freeboard is calculated.
(a) A superstructure is a decked structure on the freeboard deck, extending from side to side of the ship or with the side plating not being inboard of the shell plating more than 4 per cent of the breadth (B). A raised quarter deck is regarded as a superstructure.
(b) An enclosed superstructure is a superstructure with:
(i) enclosing bulkheads of efficient construction;
(ii) access openings, if any, in these bulkheads fitted with doors complying with the requirements of Regulation 12;
(iii) all other openings in sides or ends of the superstructure fitted with efficient weathertight means of closing.
A bridge or poop shall not be regarded as enclosed unless access is provided for the crew to reach machinery and other working spaces inside these superstructures by alternative means which are available at all times when bulkhead openings are closed.
(c) The height of a superstructure is the least vertical height measured at side from the top of the superstructure deck beams to the top of the freeboard deck beams.
(d) The length of a superstructure (S) is the mean length of the part of the superstructure which lies within the length (L).
The deck line is a horizontal line 300 millimetres in length and 25 millimetres in breadth. It shall be marked amidships on each side of the ship, and its upper edge shall normally pass through the point where the continuation outwards of the upper surface of the freeboard deck intersects the outer surface of the shell, provided that the deck line may be placed with reference to another fixed point on the ship on condition that the freeboard is correspondingly corrected. The location of the reference point and the identification of the freeboard deck shall in all cases be indicated on the International Load Line Certificate (1966).
Load Line Mark
The Load Line Mark shall consist of a ring 300 millimetres in outside diameter and 25 millimetres wide which is intersected by a horizontal line 450 millimetres in length and 25 millimetres in breadth, the upper edge of which passes through the centre of the ring. The centre of the ring shall be placed amidships and at a distance equal to the assigned summer freeboard measured vertically below the upper edge of the deck line.
Lines to be used with the Load Line Mark
The lines which indicate the load line assigned in accordance with these Regulations shall be horizontal lines 230 millimetres in length and 25 millimetres in breadth which extend forward of, unless expressly provided otherwise, and at right angles to, a vertical line 25 millimetres in breadth marked at a distance 540 millimetres forward of the centre of the ring.
The following load lines shall be used:
(a) The Summer Load Line indicated by the upper edge of the line which passes through the centre of the ring and also by a line marked S.
(b) The Winter Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked W.
(c) The Winter North Atlantic Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked WNA.
(d) The Tropical Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked T.
(e) The Fresh Water Load Line in summer indicated by the upper edge of a line marked F. The Fresh Water Load Line in summer is marked abaft the vertical line. The difference between the Fresh Water Load Line in summer and the Summer Load Line is the allowance to be made for loading in fresh water at the other load lines.
(f) The Tropical Fresh Water Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked TF, and marked abaft the vertical line.
If timber freeboards are assigned in accordance with these Regulations, the timber load lines shall be marked in addition to ordinary load lines. These lines shall be horizontal lines 230 millimetres in length and 25 millimetres in breadth which extend abaft unless expressly provided otherwise, and are at right angles to, a vertical line 25 millimetres in breadth marked at a distance 540 millimetres abaft the centre of the ring.
The following timber load lines shall be used:
(a) The Summer Timber Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LS.
(b) The Winter Timber Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LW.
(c) The Winter North Atlantic Timber Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LWNA
(d) The Tropical Timber Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LT.
(e) The Fresh Water Timber Load Line in summer indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LF and marked forward of the vertical line.
The difference between the Fresh Water Timber Load Line in summer and the Summer Timber Load Line is the allowance to be made for loading in fresh water at the other timber load lines.
(f) The Tropical Fresh Water Timber Load Line indicated by the upper edge of a line marked LTF and marked forward of the vertical line.
Where the characteristics of a ship or the nature of the ship’s service or navigational limits make any of the seasonal lines inapplicable, these lines may be omitted.
Where a ship is assigned a greater than minimum freeboard so that the load line is marked at a position corresponding to, or lower than, the lowest seasonal load line assigned at minimum freeboard in accordance with the present Convention, only the Fresh Water Load Line need be marked.
On sailing ships only the Fresh Water Load Line and the Winter North Atlantic Load Line need be marked.
Where a Winter North Atlantic Load Line is identical with the Winter Load Line corresponding to the same vertical line, this load line shall be marked W.
Additional load lines required by other international conventions in force may be marked at right angles to and abaft the vertical line specified in paragraph (1) of this Regulation.
Mark of assigning authority
The mark of the Authority by whom the load lines are assigned may be indicated alongside the load line ring above the horizontal line which passes through the centre of the ring, or above and below it. This mark shall consist of not more than four initials to identify the Authority’s name, each measuring approximately 115 millimetres in height and 75 millimetres in width.
Details of marking
The ring, lines and letters shall be painted in white or yellow on a dark ground or in black on a light ground. They shall also be permanently marked on the sides of the ships to the satisfaction of the Administration. The marks shall be plainly visible and, if necessary, special arrangements shall be made for this purpose.
Verification of marks
The International Load Line Certificate (1966) shall not be delivered to the ship until the officer or surveyor acting under the provisions of Article 13 of the present Convention has certified that the marks are correctly and permanently indicated on the ship’s sides.
Position of hatchways, doorways and ventilators
For the purpose of the Regulations, two positions of hatchways, doorways and ventilators are defined as follows:
Position 1 - Upon exposed freeboard and raised quarter decks, and upon exposed superstructure decks situated forward of a point located a quarter of the ship’s length from the forward perpendicular.
Position 2 - Upon exposed superstructure decks situated abaft a quarter of the ship’s length from the forward perpendicular.
Where covers are made of mild steel the strength shall be calculated with assumed loads not less than 1.75 metric tons per square metre on hatchways in position 1, and not less than 1.30 metric tons per square metre on hatchways in position 2, and the product of the maximum stress thus calculated and the factor 4.25 shall not exceed the minimum ultimate strength of the material. They shall be so designed as to limit the deflection to not more than 0.0028 times the span under these loads.
The assumed loads on hatchways in position 1 may be reduced to 1 metric ton per square metre for ships or 24 metres in length and shall be not less than 1.75 metric tons per square metre for ships 100 metres in length. The corresponding loads on hatchways in position 2 may be reduced to 0.75 metric tons per square metre and 1.30 metric tons per square metre respectively. In all cases values at intermediate lengths shall be obtained by interpolation.
Ventilators in position 1 or 2 to spaces below freeboard decks or decks of enclosed superstructures shall have coamings of steel or other equivalent material, substantially constructed and efficiently connected to the deck. Where the coaming of any ventilator exceeds 900 millimetres in height it shall be specially supported.
Ventilators passing through superstructures other than enclosed superstructures shall have substantially constructed coamings of steel or other equivalent material at the freeboard deck.
Ventilators in position 1 the coamings of which extend to more than 4.5 metres above the deck, and in position 2 the coamings of which extend to more than 2.3 metres above the deck, need not be fitted with closing arrangements unless specifically required by the Administration.
Ventilator openings shall be provided with efficient weathertight closing appliances. In ships of not more than 100 metres in length the closing appliances shall be permanently attached; where not so provided in other ships, they shall be conveniently stowed near the ventilators to which they are to be fitted. Ventilators in position 1 shall have coamings of a height of at least 900 millimetres above the deck; in position 2 the coamings shall be of a height at least 760 millimetres above the deck.
In exposed positions, the height of coamings may be required to be increased to the satisfaction of the Administration.
Where air pipes to ballast and other tanks extend above the freeboard or superstructure decks, the exposed parts of the pipes shall be of substantial construction; the height from the deck to the point where water may have access below shall be at least 760 millimetres on the freeboard deck and 450 millimetres on the superstructure deck. Where these heights may interfere with the working of the ship, a lower height may be approved, provided the Administration is satisfied that the closing arrangements and other circumstances justify a lower height. Satisfactory means permanently attached, shall be provided for closing the openings of the air pipes.
Protection of the crew
The strength of the deckhouses used for the accommodation of the crew shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.
Efficient guard rails or bulwarks shall be fitted on all exposed parts of the freeboard and superstructure decks. The height of the bulwarks or guard rails shall be at least 1 metre from the deck, provided that where this height would interfere with the normal operation of the ship, a lesser height may be approved if the Administration is satisfied that adequate protection is provided.
The opening below the lowest course of the guard rails shall not exceed 230 millimetres. The other courses shall be not more than 380 millimetres apart. In the case of ships with rounded gunwales the guard rail supports shall be placed on the flat of the deck.
Satisfactory means (in the form of guard rails, life lines, gangways or underdeck passages etc) shall be provided for the protection of the crew in getting to and from their quarters, the machinery space and all other parts used in the necessary work of the ship.
Deck cargo carried on any ship shall be so stowed that any opening which is in way of the cargo and which gives access to and from the crew’s quarters, the machinery space and all other parts used in the necessary work of the ship, can be properly closed and secured against the admission of water. Effective protection for the crew in the form of guard rails or life lines shall be provided above the deck cargo if there is no convenient passage on or below the deck of the ship.